Francesca James MENG(HONS)
Graduate Engineer, FairHeat


High frequency (5-minute) heat meter power and energy data from 4 large residential sites in London, consisting of a total of 855 dwellings, has been analysed over a 4.5-year period pre-, during and post- the COVID-19 pandemic.

The analysis shows there have been changes in the average residential daily demand profile between the years 2019 – 2022: between 2019 and 2020, the morning peak decreased by c.20%, while the usage between the hours of 10am – 4pm increased. The 2021 profile is similar to the 2020 profile, but the 2022 profile shows an increased morning peak and decreased usage in the middle of the day. The evening peak remains constant across all years. Furthermore, the average daily consumption increased year on year from 2019 to 2021, before showing a decrease in 2022.
These changes are in line with the lifestyle changes that occurred due to the COVID-19 pandemic: residents were less likely to wake up early and were more likely to stay in their homes during the day.

For domestic hot water use, a similar pattern was observed between 2019 – 2022 as in the average daily profiles. It was also noted that, even pre-COVID, the profile was found to differ from that given by the Hot Water Association.